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Glossary: Medical Words & Acronyms

 

A B C D E F G H I j K L M
 
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

 

Ablation therapy / cryo-ablation / thermo-ablation / radiofrequency ablation: a surgical procedure performed inside the heart by the tip of a catheter that burns or freezes tissue; ablation destroys abnormal 'reentrant' pacemaker tissue sites that cause arrhythmias

Acronym: a word created from the first letter of a sequence of words; CPR = cardio pulmonary resuscitation; EP = electrophysiology; AHA = American Heart Association; AF = atrial fibrillation

Aelius Galenus: Galen: physician son of Aelius Nikon from Greece, disciple of Hippocrates; misunderstood respiration

Alveoli: tiny air pockets surrounded by microscopic arteries and veins inside lungs where circulation of blood and ventilation of air brings in new fresh oxygen and removes warm moist vapor full of carbon dioxide out of blood

Atelectasis: collapsing of alveoli, leads to hyperthermia

Anesthesiologist: a physician who studies vapors, drugs, circulation, respiration, cognitive function, and blood coagulation

Arrhythmia: irregular pulse, abnormal ECG; premature beats; skipped heartbeats; palpitations; reentry circuits

Atypical Angina: spasm of the right coronary artery, prinzmetal angina, pulmonary embolism

Anaerobic: metabolism without oxygen; muscle lactic acid

Anticoagulation: blood thinner; aspirin; heparin; plavix; warfarin; rat poison

Anxiety: panic attack; lack of oxygen, choking on food, pulmonary embolism, oxygen desaturation

Artery: muscular thick walled blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart, aorta, pulmonary artery

Aspirin: bark of Salix tree; natural; reduces platelets coagulation

Asthma: wheezing; difficulty breathing; caused by smoke / dust inhalation or pulmonary embolism

Atrial Fibrillation: regularly irregular pulse, malfunction of mitral or tricuspid valve

Atrial Flutter: tachycardia, fast atrial contractions, malfunction of mitral or tricuspid valve

Autoimmune: immune response of the body against germs, viruses, which generate toxins, inflammation destroys healthy tissue

 

Benign: mild; opposite of malignant; not important

Bigeminy: slow strong pulse, pulmonary valve blood clot, skipped heartbeats, bradycardia, flip flop palpitation, pulse deficits

Biventricular: both ventricles; right and left ventricles

Blood Pressure: vital sign; blood volume, cardiac output, cardiac contractility; systolic contraction pressure / diastolic relaxation pressure; arterial line; sphygmomanometer; ebb and flow of blood

Blood vessel: artery; vein; capillary; flexible tube that transport blood in and out of the heart, lungs, and organs of the body

Bradycardia / slow heartbeat / athletic heart / blood clot at pulmonary valve

Brain Fog: cognitive dysfunction, TIA, blood detritus embolism into brain, temporary anaerobic cerebral metabolism

Burp: automatic reflex by the body to expel gas inside the stomach or esophagus; thrombo ructus is a burp caused by blood clot in pulmonary artery that pulsates against the esophagus

 

CHF: Congestive Heart Failure; low cardiac output, low ejection fraction; myocardial dysfunction; multiple causes include myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism into heart valves causing right ventricular congestion

CO: Carbon Monoxide; a clear gas produced during incomplete carbon combustion with oxygen

CO2: Carbon Dioxide; a clear heavy gas produced during aerobic metabolism

CPR: Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation; 'hands only' treatment for sudden cardiac arrest

Cancer: abnormal cells; Dr Rudolph Virchow discovered leukemia blood cancer / Dr Otto Warburg discovered cancer cells metabolism produces lactic acid

Cardiac Output / amount of blood pumped by the ventricles during the contraction of the heart

Cardiac ICU Nurse / a nurse in the intensive care unit  / a vital sign expert / a trained observer

Cardiac Arrest / heart stops pumping blood / no pulse / multiple causes including commotio cordis, VTE at the pulmonary valve

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation / CPR / "hands only" chest compressions / electrical defibrillation / treatment for cardiac arrest

Cardiologist / physician, surgeon or scientist who studies the heart, blood vessels, and circulation / American Heart Association / American Stroke Association / American College of Cardiology / Heart Rhythm Society

Carotid Artery / artery that carries blood into the brain / neck pulse / heartbeat

Chinese medicine / pulse / herbs / Tai Chi / yin – yang / cold – hot / male - female

Clot / thrombus / blood is liquid resin composed of salt water, sticky proteins, lubricating cholesterol, red cells, white cells and platelets. Lactic metabolic acid is the hardener that triggers the coagulation of blood resin into blood clot epoxy detritus or thrombus

Cognitive Dysfunction / brain fog / confusion / post op thinking in recovery room / CO2 narcosis / TIA's from cerebral blood clots origination from left atrial appendage or PDE (paradoxical embolism) from VTE through a PFO (patent foramen ovale) hole in the heart

Coughing / natural reflex that expels inhaled smoke, dust from breathing / natural reflex that expels blood clots out of heart valves

 

Detritus / partly coagulated blood / blood clot glue / precursor of thrombus / composed of red blood cells + sticky proteins + platelets

Depression / sadness / weakness / a natural condition caused by heart failure / Takotsubo / Q Waves / broken heart syndrome

Dilated Ventricles / precursor to ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and asystole

Dizzy spell / light headed, vertigo, brain fog, low blood pressure, embolism of detritus into brain, TIA (transient ischemic attack)

 

EP / electrophysiology: the logical study of electricity and physiology

Einthoven / physician who discovered the EKG (electrocardiogram) in 1903 / Nobel Prize 1924

EKG / ECG / electrocardiogram / graph paper record of electrical activity during heartbeat / three waves: P, QRS, and T

Electricity / static electricity / streaming potentials / friction electric charges created by the heartbeat / blood flow friction potentials

Electro-mechanical dissociation / pulseless electrical activity / pulse deficit / the heart contracts without pumping blood

Electrocardiogram / EKG / ECG / electrical activity recorded during the heartbeat / P, QRS, T waves from the heartbeat

Embolize / migrate / movement of blood clots from inside vein of leg muscles into the vena cava of the abdomen into the right atrium of the heart / discovered by Dr Virchow / 'embolia'

Esophagus / smooth muscle tube that connects the mouth to the stomach / behind and adjacent to the heart

 

Fainting / syncope / unconscious

Femoral Artery, Nerve &Vein / neurovascular bundle / three structures encapsulated by fascia into one bundle

Flatline / no electrical activity / asystole / heart without motion / no heartbeat / no blood flow / end of life / death

Flip / Flop / palpitation / ventricular bigeminy / causes include blood clot passing through pulmonary valve / pulse deficit

Fluttering / palpitation / tachycardia / fast heartbeat / causes include VTE into the tricuspid valve

Flow Murmur / narrow heart valve / caused by blood turbulence during the heartbeat

 

Gag / reflex caused by food stuck inside the esophagus of the throat / reflex caused by large blood clots pulsating inside the pulmonary artery against the esophagus, which stimulates vomiting

Gallileo: Italian professor of physics / observed that the world was a rotating sphere / accused and convicted of heresy

Graft / foreign body composed of synthetic fibers woven into flexible soft mesh patches that are used by surgeons to replace arteries, veins, ligaments or other tissue / foreign body reaction, inflammation with pain and swelling

Groin / lower part of abdomen next to the belly button (umbilicus) / connects the upper thigh to lower abdomen

 

Harvey: physician who discovered one way heart valves and theory of circulation of blood through the lungs back to heart

Heart: blood pumping pump composed of two separate but connected elongated neuromuscular tubes with one way valves, heartbeat is the contraction of two connected pumps that propel blood into the body and lungs each second of time

Heartbeat / pulse / contraction of the heart (left ventricle and aorta) generates blood flow felt in arteries as a pulse

Heart Failure / congestive heart failure / CHF / enlarged heart / swollen heart / dilated ventricles / tachycardia / arrhythmias

Heart murmur / blood flow turbulence during heartbeat / heart valve infection, blood clots, anemia

Heart Valves / four important one way reciprocating valves in the heart / tricuspid and pulmonary valves of right heart / mitral and aortic valves of the left ventricle / valves connect the two ventricles to the two atria and two great arteries

Heme / Iron / Oxygen Transport / Magnetic / Blood Color / Red Pink / Orange Blue / Purple Black / pulse oximeter 

Hemorrhage / bleeding / injury / torn or cut blood vessels / accidents / surgery / tachycardia / low blood pressure / sudden death

Hippocrates / do no harm / Father of modern medicine / belief in the spiritual & emotional nature of man / evidence based therapy / scientific / opposite of magic or supernatural

Holter monitor / EKG monitor / computer science / electricity of heartbeat / video vital sign of heartbeat

Hot Flash / fever / elevated temperature / hyperthermia / sweating / malfunction of air cooling system / clogged up alveoli / PMS / atelectasis / blood clots / pulmonary venous thrombo embolism / PE (pulmonary embolism)

Hypoxia / without oxygen / anoxia / anaerobic / sudden global lactic acidosis / sudden death 

 

Idiopathic / unexplained / not yet understood

Imagination / the use of intelligence to make sense out of data / more important than knowledge / right side of brain

Innovative / creative / art / right side of brain

Insomnia / sleepless / Ondine’s curse: insomnia begets insomnia / VTE during sleep causes sudden tachycardia with arousal

Intelligent: ability to learn, remember, compare and understand data and relationships / left side of brain

Iron / Fe / hemoglobin contains iron / ferrous & ferric / oxygen transport system / heme

Irregularly irregular heartbeat / arrhythmia / atrial fibrillation / pulsus erraticus

Isoelectric / flat line / moments between cardiac contractions / moments between blood flow

 

Jugular / blood vessel adjacent to carotid artery / venous blood flow into right atrium / pulsus reversus during heartbeat

 

Law of La Place / dilated ventricles have weak contraction / low cardiac output / sensitive to premature contractions / sudden death

Light-headed / low blood pressure / low cardiac output / VTE at pulmonary valve

Logic / science / intelligent reasoning based on observations / evidence based medicine / left side of brain / making sense out of data

Love / a complicated combination of emotion and logic / a natural unconscious attraction between men and women that leads to sexual intimacy, procreation and family / part logic and part emotion / complex relationship / patient and kind / listens without prejudice / shares 

 

Malpighi / discovered capillaries inside lungs (alveoli) / observed a difference between blood clots in veins and arteries

Menstrual Cycle / cycle of estrogen & progesterone hormone changes / blood vessel changes inside uterus during cycle / Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): hot flashes, bloating, insomnia, irritability, mild fever and tachycardia near Day # 28, 1, 2

 

Neurology / the organized study of the brain and nervous system

Nerve / a special cell that mediates and regulates muscle contractions and thinking process

Numb / without sensation / anesthesia / interruption or alteration of nerve transmission / acidosis / neuropathy

 

Oxygen Desaturation Event / SpO2 / saturation percent of oxygen in blood hemoglobin / pulse oximeter / a decrease of 4% below baseline saturation rate / caused by apnea or VTE of detritus into lungs (PE)

 

P Wave / first wave of EKG heartbeat / correspond to right and left atrial contractions / blood flow from two atrial contractions / two electric waves that are superimposed on each other / two wave merge and form one united P wave / P mitrale = abnormal wide ‘split P’ wave / mitral stenosis delays blood flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle /

Pacemaker / artificial = battery powered computer stimulator, EKG recording & sensing device attached by wires implanted into heart ventricles / regulates heart rhythm / treats sick sinus syndrome / treats and prevents sudden cardiac arrest

Pacemaker / natural areas that stimulate and coordinate peristaltic contractions / SA Node = Sino Atrial Node = a node of responsive nerve tissue inside right atrium, a visible lump inside a depression located in the right atrium of the heart where the superior vena cava drains blood from the arms and brain into the right atrium / the SA node responds to expansion, stretching, pressure, mechanical stimulation, neurochemicals, adrenaline, and electrical stimulation / the SA node impulses initiate two atrial contraction that causes P wave of the EKG / the AV node is visible lump of responsive tissue that triggers the contraction of the ventricles and create the QRS wave / invisible pacemeker cells are imbedded in the muscular walls of the two great arteries and supervise peristaltic contraction that pump blood away from the heart after the contraction of the ventricles are completed / aortic and pulmonary artery contraction generate blood flow that creates the T wave

Palpitations / cardiac sensations caused by blood clots passing through heart valves / tricuspid valve clots cause fluttering sensation with rapid weak pulse as EKG records atrial flutter / pulmonary valve clots cause flip flop sensations with slow strong pulse as EKG records ventricular bigeminy

Panic Attack / Anxiety, shortness of breath, dreadful sensations, powerful sweating, hyper alert sensation, panic / blood clot in pulmonary valve causes sudden "internal" suffocation, sudden pulseless ECG, sudden release of adrenaline with tachycardia and palpitations

Pasteur / famous biochemical research scientist and Professor from France / studied germ metabolism inside milk and discovered lactic acid / anaerobic milk sugar (lactate) → lactic acid + milk protein produce milk curds that are made into tasty cheese 

Paradoxical / intermittent, recurrent, mysterious / heart rhythm caused by blood clots passing through heart valves / paradoxical atrial flutter is caused by paradoxical blood clots passing through the tricuspid valve / "rebellious" palpitation are caused by blood clots going through heart valves

Peristalsis / sequential coordinated smooth muscle contractions that propel fluid or food one way from beginning to end /  esophagus into stomach / ureter into bladder

Physiology: the study of the function of the parts of the human body. Respiration, circulation, metabolism.

PMS / Premenstrual Syndrome / a constellation of events that commence around day #25 or #26 of the menstrual cycle and continue until about day # 2 or #3 / bloating / nausea / breast tenderness / insomnia / headache / irritability / hot flashes

Post Hoc / post hoc ergo propter hoc / misunderstanding relationship between associated events / false beliefs / misunderstanding sequence of events or cause & effect

Premature Heartbeat / abnormal heartbeat / atrial or ventricular / blood clots cause premature beats / valve malfunction cause premature beats

Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) / originates from right or left ventricle / right side PVC usually caused by blood clots passing through the pulmonary valve / aortic stenosis causes PVC that originates from exercise induced blood flow / valve stenosis acts like a prism and separates blood flow wave from aorta and blood flow wave of right ventricle into pulmonary artery / QRS wave is long, wide, bifid and split into two pieces merged together

PVC / Premature Ventricular Contraction / wide long bifid QRS wave

Pulmonary Valve / one of four important flexible, reciprocating, one way valves / regulates blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery that carries desaturated blood into the lungs

Pulse / Galen / Heartbeat / one of the original vital signs: pulse, respiration, temperature

Pulse Deficit / skipped heartbeat / pulseless EKG / electromechanical dissociation / caused by a blood clots passing through the pulmonary valve

Pulseless EKG / pulse deficit / consecutive pulseless EKG / fainting, seizure, and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)

Pulse Oximeter / a monitor that records the pulse, oxygen saturation, carbon monoxide saturation / a photoplethysmograph / transmits infrared light through the fingertip

 

QRS Wave / Ventricular Contractions / R wave, blood flow upwards and out of right and left ventricles / Second blood flow of heartbeat / Q Wave, Takotsubo, downward outward bulging of apex of ventricles at start of systole, downward blood flow, inferior MI

 

Re-entry Circuits / abnormal electrical pacemaker circuits / post hoc misunderstanding / blood flow create self-electric potentials that are measured by voltmeters during electrophysiology procedures called EP / reentrant circuits originate from blood flow not cellular action potentials

Respiration: breathing / inhalation of cool dry air full of oxygen & exhalation of warm moist air full of carbon dioxide / vital sign

 

SADS / Sudden Arrhythmogenic Death Syndrome / post hoc belief that sudden cardiac arrhythmias cause sudden death / often caused by sudden embolism of supersize blood clot into pulmonary valve / sudden "internal" suffocation / sudden cardiac arrest / thrombothanatos 

SA Node / the natural pacemaker / a node of sympathetic nerve tissue located inside the right atrium of the heart that triggers the start of the normal healthy heartbeat

Scar Tissue / dead tissue / non contracting / no sensation / unfeeling / insensitive / unresponsive

Sciatica / pain radiating down the pathways of branches of peripheral nerves composed of the sciatic nerve roots / mechanical nerve root compression → peripheral nerve tingling / shooting pains down into the legs, ankle and feet along the path of compressed nerve roots

Skipped Heartbeat / pulseless EKG / ventricular arrhythmia / PVC / wide QRS / isometric cardiac contraction / pulseless EKG / electromechanical dissociation (EMG)

Sick Sinus / Sick Sinus Syndrome / Tachy Brady Syndrome / Brady Tachy Syndrome / ideopathic, not yet understood / thrombocardia

Sleep Apnea: oxygen desaturation events that occur during sleep

Sleep Arousal / Night sweats / hot flashes / Tachycardia / PMS / Hodgkin’s disease / blood clots in the tricuspid valve cause the heart to speed up / bloody detritus clogs up the lung filters called alveoli, prevents air cooling process, leads to hyperthermia and night sweats / hot flashes

Sneeze / reflex reaction stimulated by foreign body inside trachea or bronchial tubes / reflex stimulated by blood clots inside the heart valves / pulmonary arteries / brief suspension of the heartbeat

Stasis / Slow or No blood flow / anaerobic metabolism / compartment syndrome / VOO / CO / lactic acid / clots

Stenosis / Narrowing / Explanation: valve narrowing reduces blood flow / fluid dynamics: flow is proportional to the radius of the tube raised to the 4th power / stenosis and fluid mechanics explains impact of small blood clot on blood flow

Syncope / fainting / pulseless EKG / unconscious / hypoxia / asleep / hypnosis / hyupercapnea / narcolepsy / detritus

Syndrome / a collection of symptoms associated with an unknown disease process / idiopathic

Supernatural / magic / unnatural / outside the natural / paranormal / opposite of natural

 

T Wave / third wave of EKG / misunderstood post hoc confusion / ‘repolarization’ of the ventricles /  aortic & pulmonary artery contractions create upward - downward blood flow

Tachycardia / rapid, fast heartbeat / fast pulse

Thrombocardia: blood clots interfere with blood flow through heart valves and alter the rhythm of the EKG and pulse / thrombocardia is the cause of sick sinus syndrome. 

Thrombophysiology / logical study of blood clot formation and function / blood = resin / lactic acid = hardener

Thrombothanatos / sudden death by embolism of supersize blood clots into pulmonary valve → internal circulatory suffocation cardiac arrest → "global" acidosis → fatal fibrillation of heart → asystole

Tinnitus / ringing in the ears / aspirin toxicity / excess aspirin → embolism of detritus into brain → tinnitus

 

Unconscious / asleep / natural state of rest / narcolepsy / hypercapnea

 

Valve: heart valve / flexible one way reciprocating fluid valves that regulate blood flow in heart / heart valves separate blood flow of heartbeat

Vein / soft flexible tubular blood vessel / carries blood back into the heart / pulmonary veins (lungs) / systemic veins (body)

Ventricular Fibrillation / sudden death / SADS / wiggling heart muscle / no pulse / precursor to asystole & death

Virchow / brilliant physician from Berlin, Germany / all cells come from cells / discovered leukemia / uncovered causes of coagulation / Virchow's triad: trauma, hyper coagulation and stasis / misunderstood infection, lactic acid & detritus

Vitamin D / osteoporosis / lactic acid / aseptic necrosis / alcohol / pathological fracture / sunshine / exercise / soft bones / calcium / nutrition / metabolism / diet

Voltmeter / measures electric current / resistance / electric ‘pressure’ / direct current / electron flow / streaming potentials

VOO = venous outflow obstruction = compartment syndrome / sitting position in airplane → 'economy class syndrome' / VOO leads to lactic acid + blood clots + phlebitis 

 

Warburg / physician & research scientist / discovered that cancer cells metabolize sugar into lactic acid / Hodgkin’s lymphoma causes lactic acid that forms clots that embolize into lungs during sleep and cause night sweats with racing heartbeats

Water H2O / the essence of life / polarized / magnetic / major component of blood / blood flow generates electricity



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