Otto Heinrich Warburg

Taken from Wikipedia, on August 2, 2016
Otto Heinrich Warburg,  (October 8, 1883 – August 1, 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan (cavalry regiment) during the First World War, and was awarded the Iron Cross (1st Class) for bravery. Warburg is considered one of the 20th century’s leading biochemists.He was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931. In total, he was nominated for the award 47 times over the course of his career.

Otto_WarburgBiography
Warburg’s father, Emil Warburg, was a member of the illustrious Warburg family of Altona, and had converted to Christianity reportedly after a disagreement with his Conservative Jewish parents. Emil was also president of the Physikalische Reichsanstalt, Wirklicher Geheimer Oberregierungsrat (True Senior Privy Counselor). His mother was the daughter of a Protestant family of bankers and civil servants from Baden.

Warburg studied chemistry under the famous Emil Fischer, and earned his Doctor of Chemistry in Berlin in 1906. He then studied under Ludolf von Krehl, and earned the degree of Doctor of Medicine in Heidelberg in 1911.

Between 1908 and 1914, Warburg was affiliated with the Naples Marine Biological Station, in Naples, Italy, where he conducted research. In later years, he would return for visits, and maintained a lifelong friendship with the family of the station’s director, Anton Dohrn.

A lifelong equestrian, he served as an officer in the elite Uhlans (cavalry) on the front during the First World War, where he won the Iron Cross. Warburg later credited this experience with affording him invaluable insights into “real life” outside the confines of academia. Towards the end of the war, when the outcome was unmistakable, Albert Einstein, who had been a friend of Warburg’s father Emil, wrote Warburg at the behest of friends, asking him to leave the army and return to academia, since it would be a tragedy for the world to lose his talents. Einstein and Warburg later became friends, and Einstein’s work in physics had great influence on Otto’s biochemical research.[citation needed]

Continue reading “Otto Heinrich Warburg” »

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Taken from Wikipedia

Otto Fritz Meyerhof  (April 12, 1884 – October 6, 1951), was a German physician and biochemist.

Otto_Fritz_MeyerhofOtto Fritz Meyerhof was born in Hannover, the son of wealthy Jewish parents. In 1888, his family moved to Berlin, where Otto spent most of his childhood, and where he started his study of medicine. He continued these studies in Strasbourg and Heidelberg, from which he graduated in 1909, with a work titled “Contributions to the Psychological Theory of Mental Illness”.

In 1912, he moved to the University of Kiel, where he became professor in 1918. Known for the relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle, in 1922, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Archibald Vivian Hill, for his work on muscle metabolism, including glycolysis. In 1929 he became one of the directors of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research, a position he held until 1938. Fleeing the Nazi regime, he moved to Paris in 1938. He then moved to the United States in 1940, where he became a guest professor at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Meyerhof died in Philadelphia at the age of 67.

Notable awards:
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1922
Fellow of the Royal Society

Louis Pasteur

Taken from Wikipedia

Louis_PasteurLouis Pasteur, (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895), was a 19th century French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the “father of microbiology”.

Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. He performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing ever developed, and in sterilized but open flasks microorganisms could grow. This experiment won him the Alhumbert Prize of the academy.

Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, he developed it and conducted experiments that clearly indicated its correctness and managed to convince most of Europe that it was true. (He was preceded by Girolamo Fracastoro, Agostino Bassi and others, with the significant experimental demonstration by Francesco Redi in the 17th century.) Today, he is often regarded as (one of the) fathers of germ theory.

Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what we now call optical isomers. His work led the way to our current understanding of a fundamental principal in the structure of organic compounds.

He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, till his death, and his body lies beneath the institute in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.

Continue reading “Louis Pasteur” »

Team of sleuths stalks cancer in L.A. County

by Soumya Karlamangla Contact Reporter, LA Times
November 11, 2015

Cancer Sleuth

Dennis Deapen directs the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. (Katie Falkenberg / Los Angeles Times)

Three men hunch over a table, scrutinizing a document. Maps paper the walls around them.

The moment, captured in a black-and-white photograph, marks the beginning of a quest to catch a villain.

For more than four decades, this team has been stalking the killer’s every move, trying to identify patterns of attack. They collect and store evidence, filling drawers and file cabinets.

In the late 1960s, university scientists began the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program, one of the oldest such registries in the world.

Continue reading “Team of sleuths stalks cancer in L.A. County” »

Engineer ‘nodded’ before NYC train wreck

In this photo taken on Sunday, Dec. 1, 2013, Metro North Railroad engineer William Rockefeller is wheeled on a stretcher away from the area where the commuter train he was operating derailed in the Bronx borough of New York. The National Transportation Safety Board reported Monday that the train Rockefeller was driving was going 82 mph around a 30-mph curve when it derailed killing four people and injuring more than 60. (AP Photo/Robert Stolarik)

In this photo taken on Sunday, Dec. 1, 2013, Metro North Railroad engineer William Rockefeller is wheeled on a stretcher away from the area where the commuter train he was operating derailed in the Bronx borough of New York. The National Transportation Safety Board reported Monday that the train Rockefeller was driving was going 82 mph around a 30-mph curve when it derailed killing four people and injuring more than 60. (AP Photo/Robert Stolarik)

BY JIM FITZGERALD & TOM HAYS – ASSOCIATED PRESS
December 3, 2013, 12:59 PM

NEW YORK — The engineer in the commuter-train derailment that killed four people over the weekend caught himself nodding at the controls just before the wreck, a union official said Tuesday.

William Rockefeller “caught himself, but he caught himself too late,” said Anthony Bottalico, leader of the rail employees union, relating what he said Rockfeller told him.

Continue reading “Engineer ‘nodded’ before NYC train wreck” »