Carrie Frances Fisher (October 21, 1956 – December 27, 2016)

Source: Wikipedia

Carrie Fisher 2013

Carrie Fisher 2013

Carrie Frances Fisher (October 21, 1956 – December 27, 2016) was an American actress, writer, and humorist. Fisher was the daughter of Eddie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds. She was known for playing Princess Leia in the Star Wars film series. Her other film roles included Shampoo (1975), The Blues Brothers (1980), Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), The ‘Burbs (1989), and When Harry Met Sally… (1989).

Bipolar disorder and drug use

In appearances on 20/20 and The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive with Stephen Fry, Fisher publicly discussed her diagnosis of bipolar disorder and her addictions to cocaine and prescription medication. She said her drug use was a form of self-medication; she used pain medication such as Percodan to “dial down” the manic aspect of her bipolar disorder. “Drugs made me feel normal,” she explained to Psychology Today in 2001. “They contained me.” She discussed her 2008 memoir Wishful Drinking and various topics in it with Matt Lauer on NBC’s Today that same year, and also revealed that she would have turned down the role of Princess Leia had she realized it would give her the celebrity status that made her parents’ lives difficult. This interview was followed by a similar appearance on The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson on December 12, 2008, where she discussed her electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments. At one point, she received ECT every six weeks to “blow apart the cement” in her brain. In 2014, she said she was no longer receiving the treatment.

Fisher revealed in another interview that she used cocaine during the filming of The Empire Strikes Back. “Slowly, I realized I was doing a bit more drugs than other people and losing my choice in the matter,” she noted. In 1985, after months of sobriety, she accidentally overdosed on a combination of prescription medication and sleeping pills. She was rushed to the hospital, creating the turn of events that led to much of the material in her novel and screenplay, Postcards from the Edge. Asked why she did not take on the role of her story’s protagonist, named Suzanne, in the film version, Fisher remarked, “I’ve already played Suzanne.”

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Garry Emmanuel Shandling (November 29, 1949 – March 24, 2016)

Garry Emmanuel Shandling (November 29, 1949 – March 24, 2016) was an American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, and producer, best known for his work in It’s Garry Shandling’s Show and The Larry Sanders Show.

Garry_Shandling_at_the_39th_Emmy_Awards 1987

Garry Shandling at the 39th Emmy Awards, 1987

On March 24, 2016, Shandling died in his home in Los Angeles, California at age 66. The Los Angeles Police Department reported that he suddenly collapsed in his home and was rushed to a hospital, suffering from an apparent medical emergency. However, by the time the paramedics had arrived, Shandling was already unconscious. In December 2016, the coroner said the cause of death was a blood clot in his lungs following deep vein thrombosis in his legs.

above source: Wikipedia

Obtained by PEOPLE, the 66-year-old actor’s autopsy report states the star of The Larry Sanders Show had a combination of drugs in his system, including Xanax and opiates (codeine/morphine and hydrocodone), at the time of his March death.

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Rudolf Virchow

Taken from Wikipedia

Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow, (October 1821 – September 5, 1902), was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as “the father of modern pathology” because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the “Pope of medicine”.

Rudolf_VirchowBorn and lived in Schievelbein (Świdwin) as an only child of a working-class family, he proved to be a brilliant student. Dissuaded by his weak voice, he abandoned his initial interest in theology and turned to medicine. With special military scholarship, he earned his medical degree from Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute (Humboldt University of Berlin) under the tutelage of Johannes Peter Müller. He worked at the Charité hospital under Robert Froriep, whom he eventually succeeded as the prosector.

Although he failed to contain the 1847–1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia, his report laid the foundation for public health in Germany, as well as his political and social activities. From it, he coined a well known aphorism: “Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale”. He participated in the Revolution of 1848, which led to his expulsion from Charité the next year. He published a newspaper Die medicinische Reform (Medical Reform) during this period to disseminate his social and political ideas. He took the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy at the University of Würzburg in 1849. After five years, Charité invited him back to direct its newly built Institute for Pathology, and simultaneously becoming the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy and Physiology at Berlin University. The campus of Charité is now named Campus Virchow Klinikum. He cofounded the political party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, by which he was elected to the Prussian House of Representatives, and won a seat in the Reichstag. His opposition to Otto von Bismarck’s financial policy resulted in an anecdotal “Sausage Duel” between the two. But he ardently supported Bismarck in his anti-Catholic campaigns, the social revolution he himself named as Kulturkampf (“culture struggle”).

A prolific writer, his scientific writings alone exceeded 2,000 in number. Among his books, Cellular Pathology published in 1858 is regarded as the root of modern pathology. This work also popularised the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula (“All cells come from cells”); although his idea originated in 1855. He founded journals such as Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin (now Virchows Archiv), and Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (Journal of Ethnology). The latter is published by German Anthropological Association and the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory, the societies of which he also founded.

Virchow was the first to precisely describe and give names of diseases such as leukemia, chordoma, ochronosis, embolism, and thrombosis. He coined scientific terms, chromatin, agenesis, parenchyma, osteoid, amyloid degeneration, and spina bifida. His description of the transmission cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis established the importance of meat inspection, which was started in Berlin. He developed the first systematic method of autopsy involving surgery of all body parts and microscopic examination. A number of medical terms are named after him, including Virchow’s node, Virchow–Robin spaces, Virchow–Seckel syndrome, and Virchow’s triad. He was the first to use hair analysis in criminal investigation, and recognised its limitations. His laborious analyses of the hair, skin, and eye colour of school children made him criticise the Aryan race concept as a myth.

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