Several left ventricle/aorta mechanical simulators were fabricated to evaluate the possibility of generating EKG like electrical signals by electrokinetic methodology. The simulators produced pulsed turbulent flows, simulating mammalian heart pumping conditions. EKG like signals were generated by the motion of the electrolyte through the simulators.
Willem Einthoven (21 May 1860 – 29 September 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist. He invented the first practical electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) in 1903 and received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924 for it.
Einthoven was born in Semarang on Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), the son of Louise Marie Mathilde Caroline (de Vogel) and Jacob Einthoven. His father, a doctor, died when Einthoven was a child. His mother returned to the Netherlands with her children in 1870 and settled in Utrecht. His father was of Jewish and Dutch descent, and his mother’s ancestry was Dutch and Swiss. In 1885, Einthoven received a medical degree from the University of Utrecht. He became a professor at the University of Leiden in 1886.
In 1902, he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
He died in Leiden in the Netherlands and is buried in the graveyard of the Reformed Church at 6 Haarlemmerstraatweg in Oegstgeest.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia taken on August 26, 2016
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (/ləˈplɑːs/; French: [pjɛʁ simɔ̃ laplas]; 23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace.
Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749–1827). Posthumous portrait by
Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin, 1838.
By The Associated Press From page A9 | May 22, 2016
SEATTLE — Reba Golden hurt her back after falling two floors while building an addition to her house in Honduras. But when she returned to Seattle for a routine spinal surgery, she suffered blood clots, severe bleeding and died in 2007 on the operating table.
Joan Bryant’s back had bothered her since a 1990 car accident, so in 2009 she sought help from a Seattle spinal surgeon, but she bled out on the operating table and could not be revived.
Like at least three spinal-surgery patients before them, Golden and Bryant died after their doctor injected bone cement into their spine and some of the material leaked into their blood stream, causing clotting.
The patients were never told Norian bone cement wasn’t approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Instead, Norian and parent company Synthes used surgeons in what one doctor called “human experimentation.” Federal prosecutors say the aim was to skirt a long, costly regulatory process.